1001頁:A012 消防建筑施工:建筑基本常識

發布時間:2019-07-23點擊量:467

消防建筑基本常識

雙語:

Introduction

簡介

Building construction has evolved over time. Although the overall rationale for a structureto provide shelterhas remained the same, the way we build buildings has changed as new technologies and techniques emerge.

隨著時間的推移,建筑也在持續演化。雖然為人們提供遮風擋雨的初衷未變,但新科技和新技術不斷改變著建筑的建造方式。

From a firefighting perspective, it is important to realize that the built environment that you respond to in your community is actually an aging collection of different types of buildings, incorporating a myriad of construction methods, materials, and design concepts, along with the hazards associated with each one.

管區內的各種建筑就像一個萬年博物館,不同的建筑類型,設計理念,施工工藝、材料以及它們可能潛伏的危險問題,每個消防員都不能忽視。

In essence, you must become the local historian of building constructionto understand how the buildings you protectand the people in themwill behave under fire conditions.

也許,當地的“建筑歷史學家”就是對這項工作的最好詮釋,當然這將有助于消防員預判建筑和里面的居民在火災中可能的反應。

One thing that hasnt changed, however, is the laws of physics.

但是,物理定律是亙古不變的。

As a fire fighter, you must have a working knowledge of how the forces of nature and humans cause buildings to collapse.

作為一名消防員必須具備基本的常識,比如大自然之力和人類是如何弄塌一棟樓的。

Anticipating the reaction of a particular building to these forces is essential to your safety.

預判這些力量對建筑物的影響關乎生死。

It is important, therefore, that you have an understanding of the basic concepts of construction.

因此,了解一些建筑行業的基礎概念就顯得極為重要了。

Despite the fact that learning from fire-ground experience is critical, you cant rely solely on this to keep you safe.

雖然火場經驗很重要,但書本知識同樣不可少。

From experience, some fire officers have learned to make useful, but limited, judgments regarding the loss of structural stability in a fire.

有些指揮員可以依托經驗對建筑物在火災中失穩情況進行有效的,但存在局限性的預判。

Many of the commonly taught indicators, such as sagging floors, strange noises, and the like, may be cases of too little, too late.

一些常見的失穩信號,比如“塌陷的地板,奇怪的聲響”等等,可能“太不顯眼,太不及時”。

In addition, experience with one type of building element, such as solid sawn wood joists, is not valid for trusses or wooden I-beams.

此外,實心鋸木托梁的經驗是不能用在桁架或木制工字梁上的。

實心鋸木托梁

實心鋸木托梁的安裝

木制工字梁的構成

木制工字梁的用處

桁架

Relying on experience alone is not sufficient for todays fire fighters; they must be aware of the theories and principles involved in building construction.

因此,對于當代消防員來說僅僅依賴經驗是遠遠不夠的,書本上的關于建筑的理論和原理也是必須的。

We will begin our study by looking at the greatest of all fire fighter enemiesgravity.

接下來,課程將從所有消防員的頭號大敵—重力開始。

Gravity

重力

The force of gravity is the eternal enemy of every building.

重力是所有建筑永恒的敵人。

Twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, gravity exerts a force on the building.

7X24小時,重力對建筑施加的作用年中無休。

Buildings may appear to be just quietly sitting on their foundations, but, in fact, they are under great stresses.

看上去,建筑好像只是靜靜地坐在基座上,但實際上它們承受著極大的壓力。

Although this may not be apparent as you look at the structure, the stresses are there nonetheless.

雖然看不出來,但壓力是實打實存在的。

By one means or another, in assembling a structure, the builder has defied gravity. Not all builders recognize this fact.

無論使用哪種方法,建筑物建造的過程就是對抗重力的過程。但不是所有建筑商能夠意識到這一點。

The gravity resistance system in a building consists of all the structural elements and the connections that support and transfer the loadsthat is, the forces attributable to gravity and other sources of stress on the structure.

建筑的抗重力系統由建筑中所有的構件和連接件組成,所有這些組件支撐和傳遞由重力和其他壓力構成的負載。

Fire weakens and destroys the structural elements and/or the connections in a building, and places loads on some structural elements that cannot handle them, which can cause a collapse. Once the collapse starts, the results are unpredictable.

火災會削弱和破壞構件和/或連接件,導致構件無法承受額外的負載,從而引發坍塌。一旦建筑開始坍塌,結果就無法預料了。

Some buildings are designed to be fire resistive. This means that to some degree they will resist fire-caused collapse.

有些建筑設計了抵抗火災的功能,意思是在某種程度上可以抵抗火災造成的坍塌。

The majority of buildings are non-fire-resistive, and thus may easily collapse as a result of assault by a significant fire on the gravity resistance system.

大多數建筑是不防火的,其抗重力系統受到大火的侵襲時非常容易坍塌。


往期內容:

第一章 序言

1001頁:A001 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A002 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A003 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A004 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A005 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A006 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A007 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A008 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A009 消防建筑施工

1001頁:A010 消防建筑施工


第二章 建筑基本常識

1001頁:A011 消防建筑施工:建筑基本常識

來源:52號消防站
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